（考试时间 100 分钟 满分 120 分) 本试卷共 10 页。考生务必将答案答在答题卡上，在试卷上作答无效。 第一部分：知识运用（共两节，45 分） 第一节 语法填空（共 10 小题；每小题 1.5 分, 共 15 分） 阅读下列短文，根据短文内容填空。在未给提示词的空白处仅填写 1 个适当的单词，在给出 提示词的空白处用括号内所给词的正确形式填空。
John Carter was rescued from the sea near his holiday home yesterday. The accident happened while he ___1___ (walk) along a steep cliff at the edge of the sea. He was blown off by a strong wind and ___2___ (fall) into the sea, 30 meters below. Luckily, a woman saw him in the sea soon afterwards and she called the police rescue service. Mr. Carter was taken to hospital with a ___3___ (break) arm. “I’m very lucky to be alive,” he said. “I can’t thank the woman enough.” 【答案】1. was walking 2. fell 3. broken 【解析】 本文是一篇记叙文。卡特先生在海边度假的时候掉进大海，被一位女士及时救了上来，卡特先生十分感谢 对方。 【1 题详解】 考查时态。句意：当他沿着海边一个陡峭的悬崖步行的时候，事故发生了。本句使用过去进行时表示在过 去某个时间正在进行的事情，其中一个动作是另外一个动作发生的背景。所以要填 was walking。 【2 题详解】 考查时态。句意：他被一阵强风吹倒并掉进了 30 米深的海里。全文讲述过去发生的事情，都使用了过去时 态，本句也应该使用一般过去时。所以要填 fell。 【3 题详解】 考查形容词。句意：带着一只断胳膊，卡特先生被送到医院。句中应该使用形容词充当定语修饰名词，动 词 break 的形容词是 broken，所以句中要填 broken。
Many elephants can paint. In fact, elephants in zoos sometimes draw on the ground ___4___ a stick. Seeing this,
some trainers teach the elephants ___5___ they can hold paintbrushes, and encourage them to choose colors and paint. Of course, not every painting is good. Just like humans, only some elephants are very creative. Now, an online gallery sells paintings by these elephant artists. By doing this, the gallery hopes to earn money ___6___ (protect) elephants. 【答案】4. with 5. how 6. to protect 【解析】 本文是一篇说明文，主要介绍了大象会绘画的事情，一些画廊用大象的作品来挣钱并保护大象。 【4 题详解】 考查介词。句意：实际上，有时候动物园里的大象会用树枝在地上画画。介词 with 意为“使用”，名词短语 a stick 做它的宾语。所以句中要填介词 with。 【5 题详解】 考查宾语从句连词。句意：看到这种情况，一些训练师教大象如何握住画笔，并鼓励它们选择颜色和颜料。 句中连词 how 连接宾语从句，在句中做状语，表示方式。所以句中要填 how。 【6 题详解】 考查不定式。句意：通过这种做法，这家画廊希望以此来挣钱来保护这些大象。本句中不定式充当目的状 语，所以要填 to protect。
Golden Gate Park is in San Francisco, California. It is one of the largest urban ___7___ (park) in the United States. Over one million colorful flowers, trees and other plants grow in the park. But originally most of the park ___8___ (cover) in sand. After a lot of work, it was finally built in 1870. Today, there are many people ___9___ (visit) the park every day. They play basketball, soccer, golf and many other sports there. The park is closed in many places to traffic so people can walk, cycle, or skate ___10___ (free). 【答案】7. parks 8. was covered 9. visiting 10. freely 【解析】 本文是一篇说明文，主要介绍了美国最大的城市公园之一 Golden Gate Park 有关信息。 【7 题详解】 考查名词复数形式。句意：它是美国最大的城市公园之一。固定短语 one of 的后面要接可数名词复数形式，
所以句中要填 parks。 【8 题详解】 考查时态语态。句意：但是原来这个公园大部分地区都被沙子覆盖。本句叙述过去发生的事情，要用一般 过去时；主语 most of the park 与动词 cover 构成被动关系，要用被动语态。所以本句要填 was covered。 【9 题详解】 考查现在分词。句意：现在每天有很多人参观这个公园。动词短语 visit the park 与 many people 构成主动关 系，要用现在分词短语充当定语，作用相当于定语从句。所以要填 visiting。 【10 题详解】 考查副词。句意：这所公园的很多地方对车辆是封闭的，所以人们可以在公园里可以自由地步行、骑车或 滑冰。在英语里通常使用副词修饰动词，使用形容词修饰名词，本句中要用副词修饰动词 walk, cycle, skate， 所以要填 freely。
第二节 完形填空（共 20 小题；每小题 1.5 分，共 30 分） 阅读下面短文，掌握其大意，从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项，并在答 题卡上将该项涂黑。
A Game of Light and Shade It was a sunny day. I had gone up and down the tower when, outside the door at the foot, a blind man came toward me. In a moment, he disappeared up the stairs. I looked at the sign that said “To the Tower”, and decided to ___11___ him. I caught up with him in the ticket office. There I was ___12___ to see the attendant (工作人员) selling him a ticket as if he were any other visitor. Then, with the ticket in one hand and ___13___ the wall with the fingers of the other, the blind man reached the stairs ___14___ to the hallway. “That man is blind. What would a blind man climb up the tower for?” I said to the attendant, expecting him to show some ___15___, but he didn’t answer. “Not the ___16___ certainly,” I said. “Perhaps he wants to ___17___.” I bought a ticket and ___18___ up the stairs. The man hadn’t gone as far as I ___19___. A third of the way up the tower, I heard his ___20___. I slowed down and followed him at a little ___21___. He stopped from time to time. When he got to the balcony (阳台), I was a dozen steps ___22___. As I reached it, I saw him at the corner of the tower. At last, after ten minutes, I ___23___ him. “Excuse me,” I said as politely as I could, “but I am curious to know ___24___ you came up.” He smiled. “Coming up the stairs, you will notice how not just light but sun ___25___ into the tower through
the narrow windows here and there, so that you can feel the ___26___—the cool stairs suddenly become quite warm—and how up here behind the wall there is ___27___, but as soon as going opposite a window you can find the sun. There is no ___28___ so good as this for feeling the difference between light and shade. It is not the first time
I’ve come up.”
The blind man seemed quite ___29___, just like a child who was enjoying his favorite games. He told me the
truth that blind men can also find the beauty in life ___30___ they cannot enjoy the sights of the world.
11. A. accept
12. A. frightened
13. A. touching
14. A. pointing
15. A. respect
16. A. view
17. A. kick
18. A. struggled
19. A. promised
20. A. steps
21. A. standard
22. A. ahead
23. A. recognized
24. A. why
25. A. knocks
26. A. trend
27. A. light
28. A. place
29. A. nervous
30. A. unless
【答案】11. B 12. C 13. A 14. D 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. D 19. C 20. A
21. B 22. D 【解析】
能找到生活里的美。 【11 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. accept 接受；B. follow 跟随；C. control 控制；D. visit 参观；句意：我看着“登塔”的指示 牌，决定跟随他上去看具体情况。因为对于他登塔要做的事情，我很好奇。故 B 项正确。 【12 题详解】 考查形容词辨析。A. frightened 害怕的；B. disappointed 失望的；C. surprised 惊讶的；D. embarrassed 尴尬的； 当我看见工作人员把他当做正常人一样，也卖票给他，我感觉很惊讶。故 C 项正确。 【13 题详解】 考查动词辨析及上下文串联。A. touching 触摸；B. climbing 攀登；C. hitting 击中；D. covering 覆盖；由第 二句 a blind man came toward me 可知对方是一个盲人，所以他只能摸着墙向上攀登。故 A 项正确。 【14 题详解】 考查动词短语辨析。动词短语 point to 指向；attach …to…把……附在……之上；contribute to 对……做贡献； lead to 导致，通向；句中现在分词短语 leading to the hallway 做定语修饰名词 the stairs，指通向走廊的楼梯。 其余三项语义不搭配。故 D 项正确。 【15 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. respect 尊敬；B. doubt 怀疑；C. concern 担心；关心；D. sympathy 同情；我告诉工作人 员他是一个盲人，希望工作人员能够多关注他，因为他无法欣赏风景，他很可能是要登塔以后会跳下去。 故 C 项正确。 【16 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. view 风景；观点；B. test 测试；C. prize 奖品，奖励；D. trick 诡计；把戏；我认为这个 盲人不会到塔顶去看风景，他是想去跳楼；所以我才让工作人员关注他。故 A 项正确。 【17 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. kick 踢；B. jump 跳跃；C. relax 放松；D. escape 逃跑；我认为这个盲人不会到塔顶 去看风景，他是想去跳楼；故 B 项正确。 【18 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. struggled 挣扎，斗争；B. explored 探索；C. wandered 徘徊，闲逛；D. hurried 匆忙；由 上文可知我非常担心这个盲人，买了票以后匆忙爬上楼梯跟着他查看他究竟想做什么。故 D 项正确。 【19 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. promised 承诺；B. examined 检查；C. imagined 想象；D. confirmed 确认；这个盲人 爬得并没有我想象得那么远，在向上的楼梯三分之一的地方，我听到了他的脚步声。故 C 项正确。 【20 题详解】
考查名词辨析。A. steps 脚步；B. words 话；C. secrets 秘密；D. cheers 欢呼；这个盲人爬得并没有我想象得 那么远，在向上的楼梯三分之一的地方，我听到了他的脚步声。于是我放慢脚步，在后面稍远处跟着他。 故 A 项正确。 【21 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. standard 标准；B. distance 距离；C. expense 费用；D. intention 目的，意图；在向上的楼 梯三分之一的地方，我听到了他的脚步声。于是我放慢脚步，在后面稍远处跟着他。名词 distance 表示距 离，故 B 项正确。 【22 题详解】 考查副词辨析。A. ahead 在前面；B. around 在附*；C. outside 在外面；D. behind 在后面；当他到阳台的时 候，我在后面几十步的地方看着他。本句指我站在他的后面，观察他的行为。故 D 项正确。 【23 题详解】 考查动词辨析及上下文串联。A. recognized 认出，意识到；B. surrounded 包围；C. approached 靠*；D. witnessed 目睹，见证；根据下文“Excuse me”可知我靠*和他打招呼。故 C 项正确。 【24 题详解】 考查上下文串联。作者一路跟着这位盲人登塔，主要是因为他不知道对方来这里的原因。所以句中使用 why 引导宾语从句。故 A 项正确。 【25 题详解】 考查动词辨析。A. knocks 敲击；击中；B. pours 倾倒；C. slides 滑倒；D. bursts 爆发；爬上楼梯，你注意到 的不仅是光线，而且阳光会透过窗户照射到各处，这样就可以感受到这种变化，楼梯从凉爽突然变得很温 暖。动词 pour 表示阳光透过窗户洒在楼梯上。故 B 项正确。 【26 题详解】 考查名词辨析及上下文串联。A. trend 趋势，倾向；B. reaction 反应；C. change 改变；D. honor 荣耀；从后 句“the cool stairs suddenly become quite warm 楼梯突然从凉爽变得温暖”，可知指这种变化。故 C 项正确。 【27 题详解】 考查生活常识及名词辨析。A. light 光线；B. space 空间；C. mess 杂乱；D. shade 阴影；根据生活常识可知 在“behind the wall 墙体的后面”通常都有阴影。故 D 项正确。 【28 题详解】 考查名词辨析。A. place 地方；B. signal 信号；C. object 物体；D. period 阶段；时期；句意：没有什么地方 和这里一样可以很好的感觉光线和阴影之间的差别。我不是第一次来这里了。这位盲人告诉作者在这里他 可以很好地感受光线和阴影的差别，所以他才会来这个地方。故 A 项正确。 【29 题详解】
考查形容词辨析及上下文串联。A. nervous 紧张的；B. content 满足的；满意的；C. curious 好奇的；D. patient 耐心的；根据后半句“just like a child who was enjoying his favorite games 就像是欣赏自己最喜欢的孩子一样”， 说明这个盲人非常满意这个世界给予他的这一切。故 B 项正确。 【30 题详解】 考查连词辨析。A. unless 除非；B. because 因为；C. once 一旦；D. although 尽管；他告诉我尽管盲人们无 法享受世界上的风景，但他们也能找到生活里的美。根据句意可知上下文之间是转折关系，要用 although 引导让步状语从句。故 D 项正确。 【点睛】本文小题 20 考查了上下文状语从句连词，根据句意可知上下文之间是转折关系，要用 although 引导让步状语从句。在完成完形填空时，我们要探究前后逻辑，确定连接词汇 ；连接词是构成语篇的纽带， 也是相关语句信息的结合点。命题人常在这些“关节”上设置题目，考查学生的语用能力。因此，考生在解 题时，要仔细分析，推理前后的逻辑关系，确定最佳选项。
例 1： She had excellent grades, __24__she always thought that something was missing. （天津卷）
24. A. or B. so C. for D. but 析： 根据空前的 excellent grades 和空后的 always 和 something was missing，可推知“她”成绩虽突出，可对 生活仍不满足，故选择转折连词 but，答案为 D。
例 2： “Would you mind telling me when you are thinking of leaving?__40__are you going to sit in your car all day ?” （全国卷 II） 40. A. For B. Or C. But D. So 析： 根据空前的 leaving 和空后的 sit in your car all day，说明对方在询问并让“我”做出选择，从而推知答 案为表示选择关系的连词 or。
第二部分：阅读理解（共两节，40 分） 第一节（共 15 小题；每小题 2 分，共 30 分） 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项 涂黑。
Get Involved! Make a Donation!
So what is rewilding? Imagine our natural homes growing instead of shrinking. Imagine species (物种) diversifying instead of declining. That’s rewilding. Rewilding is ecological restoration. Rewilding offers hope for wildlife, humans and the planet. Why is rewilding important and necessary? ● Our natural ecology is broken. The places where you would expect wildlife to exist have been reduced to wet deserts. The seabed has been destroyed and there have been no living creatures any more. ● Our wildlife is disappearing. Many wonderful species have declined over the past century. We’ve lost more of our large animals than any European country. ● We need keystone species. These vital species, including top predators (食肉动物), drive ecological processes. Their loss has worsened our living systems. ● Nature looks after us. Good natural ecology can provide us with clean air and water, prevent flooding and store carbon. Rewilding can leave the world in a better state than it is today. What are challenges? As a long-term project, our “rewilding britain” has its challenges. Many people are not interested, because we have got used to the lack of native forests. Many farmers oppose the idea. They thought it a crazy idea to bring back predators because they would start killing farm animals. It takes time to educate them. Above all, we need money! So we need your help! Make a donation. Help us bring back living systems and restore wild nature! With your help we can... ● Open up new chances for rewilding and push for change. ● Develop tools to educate, influence and spread the word. Thanks for your support.
31. Which of the following is the result of rewilding?
A. Species become various.
B. A lot of animals disappear.
C. Environments are destroyed.
D. Natural disasters happen regularly.
32. According to the passage, one of the challenges at present is ______.
A. people’s doubts
B. a lack of volunteers
C. a shortage of time
D. farmers’ disagreement
33. What is the main purpose of the passage?
A. To introduce a new project.
B. To call on people to give money.
C. To warn people of the natural ecology.
D. To convince people to change their mind.
【答案】31. A 32. D 33. B
本文是一篇应用文，主要介绍了一个名叫“rewilding britain”的再野生化项目的具体情况，并号召人们为这 个项目捐款。
【31 题详解】 推理判断题。根据第一段前三句“Imagine our natural homes growing instead of shrinking. Imagine species (物种) diversifying instead of declining. That’s rewilding.”可知当我们对物种进行再野生化的时候，我们的自然家园 会扩大而不是萎缩，自然物种会变得更加多样而不是减少。也就是说物种会变得多样化，故 A 项正确。 【32 题详解】 细节理解题。根据第六段前三句“As a long-term project, our “rewilding britain” has its challenges. Many people are not interested, because we have got used to the lack of native forests. Many farmers oppose the idea.”可知这是 一个长期项目，会有很多挑战。很多农民会反对这个项目。故 D 项正确。 【33 题详解】 主旨大意题。根据文章最后一部分“Make a donation. Help us bring back living systems and restore wild nature!” 可知本文主要是为了号召人们为“rewilding britain”项目捐款。故 B 项正确。
Barrington Irving made his historic flight and founded an educational non-profit-making organization. His
message for kids: “The only thing that separates you from scientists is determination, hard work and a strong liking
for what you want to achieve.” The secret, he believes, is having a dream in the first place, and that starts with
learning experiences that inspire kids to build careers.
The moment of inspiration for Irving came at the age of 15 in his parents’ bookstore. One customer, a
professional pilot, asked Irving if he’d thought about becoming a pilot. “I told him I didn’t think I was smart enough; but the next day he took me to the cockpit (驾驶舱) of the commercial airplane he flew, and just like that I was hooked.”
To follow his dream, Irving turned down a football scholarship to the University of Florida. He washed airplanes to earn money for a flight school and increased his flying skills by practising at home on a $40 flight simulator (模拟) video game. Then another dream took hold: flying alone around the world. He faced more than 50 rejections for sponsorship before convincing some companies to donate aircraft components. He took off with no weather radar, no de-icing system, and just $30 in his pocket. “I like to do things people say I can’t do.”
After 97 days, 26 stops and dozens of thunderstorms, he touched down to a cheering crowd in Miami. “It was seeing so many young people watching and listening that pushed me into giving back with my knowledge and experience.” Irving has been doing it ever since. He set up his non-profit-making organization, Experience Aviation (航空), aiming to increase the numbers of youth in aviation and science-related careers. Kids attend programmes dealing with hands-on robotics projects and flight simulator challenges.
“We want to create chances for students to accomplish something amazing,” he notes. Perhaps Irving’s most powerful educational tool is the example his own life provides. After landing his record-breaking flight at age 23, he said, “Everyone told me I was too young, that I didn’t have enough experience, strength, or knowledge. They told me it would take forever and I’d never come home. Well ... guess what?” 34. According to Irving, what is the most important in achieving success? A. Meeting people who provide unexpected help. B. Getting a chance to study technical knowledge. C. Having something specific that you want to accomplish. D. Developing communication with different organizations. 35. What Irving replied to the pilot in the bookstore suggested that ______. A. he felt embarrassed to refuse the offer B. he was doubtful about his own abilities C. he knew his efforts would be rewarded D. he realized immediately how lucky he was 36. What can we learn about Irving in Paragraph 3? A. He chose to reduce his budget as low as possible. B. He was finally given enough money to keep going. C. He got the most useful flying tips from his video game.
D. He took on a further challenge after he knew how to fly. 37. Irving set up his non-profit-making organization because ______. A. he hoped to become a public figure B. he expected to start a business in other fields C. he saw there was great interest in what he was doing D. he thought he could teach more than flight schools could 【答案】34. C 35. B 36. D 37. C 【解析】 本文是一篇记叙文，主要讲述了 Barrington Irving 学*飞行、独自一人飞越全球并成立公益组织传播飞行知 识及经验的故事。 【34 题详解】 推理判断题。根据文章第一段最后一句“The secret, he believes, is having a dream in the first place, and that starts with learning experiences that inspire kids to build careers.”可知 Irving 认为最重要的是首先要有梦想，也就是 首先你要有自己迫切想要完成的具体事情。故 C 项正确。 【35 题详解】 推理判断题。根据第二段第三句“I told him I didn’t think I was smart enough;”可知 Irving 告诉对方自己可能 不够聪明，说明他怀疑自己的能力。故 B 项正确。 【36 题详解】 细节理解题。根据第三段第三句“Then another dream took hold: flying alone around the world.”可知在学会飞 行以后，他又了另外一个梦想：独自飞越全球。故 D 项正确。 【37 题详解】 推理判断题。根据第四段二三句“It was seeing so many young people watching and listening that pushed me into giving back with my knowledge and experience.” Irving has been doing it ever since. He set up his non-profit-making organization, Experience Aviation (航空), aiming to increase the numbers of youth in aviation and science-related careers.”可知促使他建立这个公益组织的是他看到了很多年轻人都在期待他完成目标，他 要把自己的知识和经验教给更多的年轻人。他这样做有很大的好处。故 C 项正确。
Training the Brain People who can accomplish unbelievable tasks, such as memorizing thousands of random numbers in under an hour, state that they just have normal brains. Some memory superstars compete in Olympic-like World Memory Championships. These mental athletes, or MAs for short, can memorize names of dozens of strangers in a few
minutes or any poem handed them. Ed Cooke, a 24-year-old MA, explains they see themselves as participants rescuing the long-lost art of memory training. These techniques existed not to recall useless information, but to cut into the brain basic text and ideas.
A study in the journal Nature examined eight people who finished near the top of the World Memory Championships. The scientists examined whether their brains were fundamentally different from everyone else’s or whether they were simply making better use of memorizing abilities we all possess. They put the MAs and control subjects into brain scanners and had them memorize numbers and photographs. The result surprised everyone. The brains of the MAs and those of the control subjects were indistinguishable. On every test, the MAs scored in the normal range. However, when the scientists examined what part of the brain was used during a memory activity, they found the MAs relied more heavily on areas in the brain involved in spatial memory.
MAs offer an explanation: anything can be fixed upon our memories and kept in order by constructing a building in the imagination and filling it with pictures of what needs to be recalled. Dating back to the fifth century, the building is called a memory palace. Even as late as the fourteenth century, when there were copies of any text, scholars needed to remember what was read to them. Reading to remember requires a different technique than speed reading. If something is made memorable, it has to be repeated. Until relatively recently, people read only a few books intensively (细致地) again and again, usually aloud. Today we read extensively, usually only once and without continuous focus.
So the great difference is the ability to create impressive pictures in mind and to do it quickly. Using memory palaces, MAs create memorized pictures. For example, recombine the pictures to form unforgettable scenes such as the ways through a town. One competitor used his own body parts to help him memorize a 57,000-word dictionary.
Anyone who wishes to train the mind needs first to create fantastical palaces in the imagination. Then they should cut each building into cubbyholes for memories. In a short amount of time, they will notice improvement with remembering things. To keep the skill sharp, MAs deliberately empty their palaces after competitions, so they can reuse them and they recommend that beginners do the same. 38. We can learn from Paragraph 2 that a mental athlete ______. A. owns a brain that is larger in size B. shows a gift in mental ability tests C. uses the memorizing technique better D. depends less on the areas that control spatial memory 39. Why does the author mention “speed reading” in Paragraph 3? A. To discuss the memorizing technique in the fifth century.
B. To give the reason why people read only a few books carefully.
C. To explain the text fourteenth century scholars had to remember.
D. To compare the type of reading nowadays with that of earlier times.
40. What can be inferred from Paragraph 4?
A. There is a variety of unforgettable scenes.
B. Memory palaces can be quickly forgotten.
C. Impressive pictures are in actual buildings.
D. One person probably has 57,000 body parts.
41. What does the underlined word “cubbyholes” in the last paragraph probably mean?
A. Small spaces.
B. Blacks holes.
C. Technical skills.
D. Different numbers.
【答案】38. C 39. D 40. A 41. A
推理判断题。根据第二段最后一句“However, when the scientists examined what part of the brain was used during
a memory activity, they found the MAs relied more heavily on areas in the brain involved in spatial memory.”可知
部分。说明他们可以更好地运用这些记忆技巧。故 C 项正确。
推理判断题。根据第三段后三句“Even as late as the fourteenth century, when there were copies of any text,
scholars needed to remember what was read to them……If something is made memorable, it has to be repeated.
Until relatively recently, people read only a few books intensively (细致地) again and again, usually aloud. Today
we read extensively, usually only once and without continuous focus.”可知作者使用 speed reading 指现代人的阅
读类型与以前有了很大的变化，之前人们通常反复阅读一本书，而现在通常只读一次。故 D 项正确。
推理判断题。根据第四段第三句“For example, recombine the pictures to form unforgettable scenes such as the
ways through a town.”可知我们可以把多张图片相结合形成一些令人难忘的场景。如果我们要想记住更多的
事情，就要在我们的脑海里形成更多这样的场景。也就是说会有各种各样的场景，故 A 项正确。
猜测词义题。横线前面一句“Anyone who wishes to train the mind needs first to create fantastical palaces in the imagination.”告诉我们首先要在脑海里创造出幻想出的宫殿，然后再把这些宫殿分隔成不同的记忆空间来存 储不同的记忆内容。所以本句中的“cubbyholes”是指被分隔出来的小空间。故 A 项正确。
Early or Later Day Care Many young parents are confused about whether their children should have early day care, and there have always been different views on this subject. The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby believes that separation from parents during the sensitive “attachment” period from birth to three may scar a child’s personality and lead to psychological problems in later life. Some people have drawn the conclusion from Bowlby’s work that children should not be subjected to day care before three because of the parental separation it causes, and many people do believe this. According to Bowlby, a great deal of psychological harm can occur when young children are separated from their parents. If they are left without touch for a while, they will have a higher stress level. Parents’ influence on their children’s well-being may never be greater than during the earliest years of life, when a child’s brain is developing rapidly and when nearly all of her or his experiences are shaped by parents and the family environment. However, there are critics. Some anthropologists (人类学家) point out that the love affair between children and parents found in modern societies does not usually exist in traditional societies. There has been a long history of the fact that father and mother did not bring up their children alone. Plato, around 394 B.C., argued that a system of early child care would free women to participate in society. Results from Israeli and Dutch studies show that child-raising duties are more evenly distributed among a broader group of people. Besides, studies have reported that early day care has a neutral or slightly positive effect on children’s development. They learn the benefits of being socially smart, understanding the concept of sharing and caring. They promote concentration skills, which is very important in their learning. There are games where children are taught basic language and mathematical skills through stories and everyday examples. Common sense tells us that early day care would not be so widespread if children had problems with it. But Bowlby’s analysis raises the possibility that it has delayed effects. The possibility that such care might lead to more mental illness 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics. Whatever the long-term effects, parents sometimes find the immediate effects difficult to deal with. Children under three dislike leaving their parents and show unhappiness. At the age of three almost all children find it easy to go to the nursery. The matter, then, is far from being clearly known, though experience and available evidence indicate that early day care is reasonable for young children.
42. The passage mainly argues whether ______. A. children over three will accept school education B. children under three should be sent to nursery schools C. the family relationship is different in traditional societies D. early day care should be totally replaced in modern societies 43. Which of the following supports Bowlby’s theory? A. Early day care wouldn’t be so popular if it had negative effects. B. Separation from parents for young children is common in history. C. Parents find the immediate effects of early day care difficult to deal with. D. Studies show early day care has a positive effect on children’s development. 44. The author’s attitude towards early day care is that ______. A. children under three should stay with their parents B. it has potential benefits for both children and parents C. the bad effect of it on children will disappear as they grow up D. it is controversial and the settlement calls for the use of statistics 45. Which of the following shows the development of ideas in the passage? I: Introduction P: Point Sp: Sub-point (次要点) C: Conclusion
【答案】42. B 43. C 44. D 45. B
【解析】 【分析】 本文是一篇议论文，讨论了三岁之前的儿童是否应该被送去日间护理托儿所。文章分别介绍了支持与反对 两种不同观点，并详细说明了具体的理由。 【42 题详解】 主旨大意题。根据文章第一段“Many young parents are confused about whether their children should have early day care, and there have always been different views on this subject.”可知本文是一篇议论文，讨论了三岁的儿 童是否应该被送去日间护理托儿所。文章分别介绍了支持与反对两种不同观点。故 B 项正确。 【43 题详解】 推理判断题。根据第二段第一句“The British psychoanalyst John Bowlby believes that separation from parents during the sensitive “attachment” period from birth to three may scar a child’s personality and lead to psychological problems in later life.”可知 John Bowlby 认为三岁之前孩子与父母分开会给孩子的个性带来影响，并对孩子 以后的生活带来精神方面的问题。而性格和精神方面的问题是难以处理的。故 C 项正确。 【44 题详解】 推理判断题。根据最后一段前两句“Common sense tells us that early day care would not be so widespread if children had problems with it. But Bowlby’s analysis raises the possibility that it has delayed effects.”可知作者认 为三岁之前送孩子去托儿所的影响是存在争议的，很难说这种做法是正确的还是错误的。再根据第三句“The possibility that such care might lead to more mental illness 15 or 20 years later can only be explored by the use of statistics.”可知我们要根据具体的数据来分析这个问题。故 D 项正确。 【45 题详解】 篇章结构题。本文是一篇议论文。第一段提出文章讨论的话题，也就是 Introduction；第二三段解释英国精 神分析专家 John Bowlby 反对三岁之前送孩子去托儿所的理由，也就是 point1；第四五段是支持送孩子去 托儿所的理由，也就是 point2；四五段是两个次要点，也就是 sp1 和 sp2；文章最后一段总结了最终的结论。 所以 B 项与文章的结构相吻合。故 B 项正确。 【点睛】本文小题 4 考查了篇章结构题，此类题型对学生的整体框架能力要求较高；通常既涉及篇章架构， 也会涉及写作手法。通常说来作者会根据不同文章的内容和写作目的，采取记叙、描写、议论、说明或应 用文体。作者也会采用叙述、例证、比较对照等不同的组织结构。不同文体的阅读难度、要求和任务不同， 阅读方法也应不同。增强对篇章结构的理解能力有助于提高阅读质量。 例题：（2008 年全国高考—浙江卷 C 篇）
In the course of working my way through school, I took many jobs I would rather forget. But none of these jobs was as dreadful as my job in an apple plant. The work was hard; the pay was poor; and, most of all, the working
conditions were terrible. First of all, the job made huge demands on my strength… … I stayed on the job for five months, all the while hating the difficulty of the work, the poor money, and the
conditions under which I worked. By the time I left, I was determined never to go back there again. 52. How is the text organized?
A. Topic—Argument—Explanation B. Opinion—Discussion--Description C. Main idea—Comparison—Supporting examples D. Introduction—Supporting examples—Conclusion 答案与解析：选 D。本题考查对语篇的结构理解。本文为记叙文的一般结构，本文叙述了作者上学时在一 个苹果加工厂打工的经历。作者在第一段提出在苹果加工厂工作的辛苦，工资低和工作条件差（The work was hard; the pay was poor; and, most of all, the working conditions were terrible.），中间三段举例描述，最后一 段得出“再也不愿意做”的结论（By the time I left, I was determined never to go back there again.）。
第二节（共 5 小题；每小题 2 分，共 10 分） 根据短文内容，从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余 选项。
Can We Stop Food Longing Through Imaginary Eating? Are you fighting an urge to reach for chocolate? Then, let it melt in your mind, not in your mouth. According to the recent research, imagining eating a specific food reduces your interest in that food, so you eat less of it. This reaction to repeated exposure to food—being less interested in something because you’ve experienced it too much—is called habituation. _____46_____ The research is the first to show that habituation can occur through the power of the mind. “If you just think about the food itself—how it tastes and smells—that will increase your appetite,” said Carey Morewedge, a well-known psychologist. “It might be better to force yourself to repeatedly think about chewing and swallowing the food in order to reduce your longing. _____47_____ Visualizing yourself eating chocolate wouldn’t prevent you from eating lots of cheese,” he added. Morewedge conducted an interesting experiment. 51 subjects were divided into three groups. One group was asked to imagine putting 30 coins into a laundry machine and then eating three chocolates. _____48_____ Another group was asked to imagine putting three coins into a laundry machine and then eating 30 chocolates. Lastly, a control group imagined just putting 33 coins into the machine—with no chocolates. _____49_____ When they said
they had finished, these were taken away and weighed. The results showed the group that had imagined eating 30 chocolates each ate fewer of the chocolates than the other groups.
_____50_____ Physical signals—that full stomach feeling—are only part of what tells us we’ve finished a meal. The research suggests that psychological effects, such as habituation, also influence how much a person eats. It may lead to new behavioral techniques for people looking to eat more healthily, or have control over other habits. A. What’s more, this only works with the specific food you’ve imagined. B. People were advised to try different methods to perform the experiment. C. For example, a tenth bite is desired less than the first bite, according to the study. D. All of them then ate freely from bowls containing the same amount of chocolate each. E. It meant those who repeatedly imagined eating would concern about some specific food. F. This requires the same motor skills as eating small chocolates from a packet, the study says. G. This study is part of the research looking into what makes us eat more than we actually need. 【答案】46. C 47. A 48. F 49. D 50. G 【解析】 本文是一篇说明文，文章介绍了心理因素对人们饮食数量的影响，例如 “habituation”。 【46 题详解】 根据横线前面一句“This reaction to repeated exposure to food—being less interested in something because you’ve experienced it too much—is called habituation”可知当我们多次接触到某一食物的时候，我们对它的兴趣就会 减少，因为我们已经熟悉了它。本句是对这一理论的举例说明，C 项“For example, a tenth bite is desired less than the first bite, according to the study.”与前面一句相吻合，故选择 C 项。 【47 题详解】 根据横线后面一句“Visualizing yourself eating chocolate wouldn’t prevent you from eating lots of cheese”可知观 察自己吃巧克力的样子不会阻止你吃奶酪。也就是说我们要想象自己吃某种具体的食物，这样才会减少你 对这种食物的渴望。A 项“What’s more, this only works with the specific food you’ve imagined.”恰好与此吻合， 故选择 A 项。 【48 题详解】 根据本段前面两句“Morewedge conducted an interesting experiment. 51 subjects were divided into three groups.” 可知研究人员对此问题进行了分组研究。第一组的研究对象被要求想象把 30 个硬币扔进洗衣机，然后想象 吃了 3 个巧克力。这和从口袋里拿出巧克力来吃有类似的运动神经技巧，所以研究人员才会这样开展研究。
F 项“This requires the same motor skills as eating small chocolates from a packet, the study says.”与上下文语境一 致，故 F 项正确。 【49 题详解】 根据本段最后一句“The results showed the group that had imagined eating 30 chocolates each ate fewer of the chocolates than the other groups.”可知在这些人吃完以后，进行称重。结果发现想象每次吃了 30 个巧克力的 人实际上吃了最少。也就是说在他们实验结束以后，会让他们自由地吃巧克力。D 项“All of them then ate freely from bowls containing the same amount of chocolate each.”符合上下文语境，故选择 D 项。 【50 题详解】 根据本段第三句“The research suggests that psychological effects, such as habituation, also influence how much a person eats.”可知本次研究说明心理方面的因素会影响人们吃的东西的量。由此可见这个研究是关于人们饮 食数量的话题。G 项“This study is part of the research looking into what makes us eat more than we actually need.” 符合中心思想，故选择 G 项。
第三部分：书面表达（共两节，35 分） 第一节（15 分）
51.假设你是红星中学高三的学生李华。你班交换生 Jim 将要参加“学在中国”留学生汉语演讲比赛，来信向 你咨询。请你给他写一封邮件，内容包括： 1. 推荐一个演讲话题； 2. 说明推荐的理由； 3. 建议他做哪些准备工作。 注意：1. 词数不少于 50；2. 邮件的开头和结尾已给出，不计入总词数。 Dear Jim, ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________
Yours, Li Hua 【答案】Dear Jim, I’m glad to know that you’ll take part in the “Studying in China” speech contest. I’d like to give you some
I recommend that you talk about the courses on Chinese traditional culture you’ve attended. The major reason
is that they introduce the real treasure in human history. Besides, since you’ve taken the courses systematically,
you’re sure to have a deep understanding of them.
To do it well, I think you should choose impressive examples to gain the recognition of the judges. Moreover,
you have to practice your spoken Chinese to express yourself more clearly and fluently. Speaking skills are also
needed, for they can help maximize the effectiveness of your speech.
I really hope my advice will be helpful. Wish you a great success.
本文是一篇开放类书面表达，要求考生把自己当成李华，交换生 Jim 将要参加“学在中国”留学生汉语演讲
【详解】第 1 步：审题。根据文字提示可知本文是一封电子邮件，要求考生给交换生 Jim 写一封邮件，推
荐“学在中国”演讲比赛的话题，说明推荐的理由并建议对方要做的具体准备。全文以一般现在时为主。 第 2 步：组织要点。（1）推荐一个演讲话题：中国传统文化；（2）推荐的理由：传统文化是人类历史的瑰 宝；学*传统文化有助于理解中国历史；（3）准备工作：选择合适传统文化的例子；练*汉语口语和演讲 技巧。 第 3 步：根据提示及关键词组进行遣词造句，关键词为 give some suggestions、recommend、Chinese traditional culture、the real treasure in human history、have a deep understanding of、choose impressive examples、practice your spoken Chinese 等。写作时注意电子邮件的格式和惯用语。 第 4 步：连句成文，注意使用恰当的连词进行句子之间的衔接与过渡，书写一定要规范清晰，保持整洁美 观的卷面是非常重要的。 【点睛】本篇范文结构完美，条理清晰。范文时态和人称运用准确，涵盖了文字提示要求的所有要点，且 有适当的个人发挥。考生运用了多样式的句型结构，整篇文章富有变化并不死板。使用了较多的高级词汇 和短语结构，如 recommend、systematically、recognition、maximize the effectiveness 等；尽量运用了丰富的 句式，如定语从句和虚拟语气 I recommend that you talk about the courses on Chinese traditional culture you’ve attended；表语从句 The major reason is that they introduce the real treasure in human history.同时文章还运用了 一些串联成分，如 besides，这些串联词让各个要点更紧密地结合在一起。以上写作技巧的运用提升了文章 的层次，显示了考生具有很强的驾驭语言的能力。
第二节 （20 分）
色出行，从我做起”活动的完整过程，并以“Green Travel in My Family”为题，给校刊“英语角”写一篇英文稿
Green Travel in My Family ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 【答案】Green Travel in My Family
Last month, our school organized an activity named “Green Travel, Start with Me”, which has played an educative role.
Seeing the proposal on the bulletin board, my classmates and I were deeply interested and had a heated discussion. Everyone expressed their willingness to participate. After getting home, I talked to my parents about my ideas. They were very supportive, saying they wouldn’t drive to work from the next day. In the following weeks, as we promised, I went to school by bike every day, while my parents went to work by bus. Tired as we were, we all felt happy. Last Friday, a class meeting was held as scheduled. Some parents were invited, including my father and mother. We shared our experiences and thoughts during the activity. All of us held the same view that environmental protection is so important for our life.
Through the activity, we find it our duty to protect the environment. I hope more and more people will join us in green travel. 【解析】 【分析】
本文是一篇看图作文，要求考生把自己当成李华，介绍上个月你参加学校组织的“绿色出行，从我做起”活 动的完整过程，并以“Green Travel in My Family”为题，给校刊“英语角”写一篇英文稿件。本文只给出四幅 图，需要考生根据图画内容组织要点并合理表达，总体难度较大。 【详解】第 1 步：审题。根据文字提示可知本文是一篇看图作文，要求考生以“Green Travel in My Family” 为题，给校刊“英语角”写一篇英文稿件，介绍上个月你参加学校组织的“绿色出行，从我做起”活动的完整 过程。全文以一般过去时和第一人称为主。 第 2 步：组织要点。（1）看到倡议书，同学们都很感兴趣，并进行了热烈的讨论；（2）回家以后和父母谈 论我的想法，他们都很支持我；（3）从那以后我骑自行车上学，我的父母亲乘坐公共交通工具上下班。（4） 我们召开了班会并邀请一些父母亲参加。 第 3 步：根据提示及关键词组进行遣词造句，关键词为 have a heated discussion、talked to my parents、go to school by bike、go to work by bus、hold a class meeting 等。写作时需要注意时态和人称的变化。 第 4 步：连句成文，注意使用恰当的连词进行句子之间的衔接与过渡，书写一定要规范清晰，保持整洁美 观的卷面是非常重要的。 【点睛】本篇范文结构完美，条理清晰。范文时态和人称运用准确，涵盖了图画的所有要点，且有适当的 个人发挥。考生运用了多样式的句型结构，整篇文章富有变化并不死板。使用了较多的高级词汇和短语结 构，如 played an educative role、participate、schedule、environmental protection 等；尽量运用了丰富的句式， 如定语从句 which has played an educative role；分词做状语 Seeing the proposal on the bulletin board, my classmates and I were deeply interested and had a heated discussion.形式倒装句 Tired as we were, we all felt happy. 同时文章还运用了一些串联成分，这些串联词让各个要点更紧密地结合在一起。以上写作技巧的运用提升 了文章的层次，显示了考生具有很强的驾驭语言的能力。